WHAT ARE THE TYPES AND RISK FACTORS OF DIABETES?
Type 1 diabetes may account for 5% to 10% of all diagnosed cases of diabetes. Autoimmune, genetic, and environmental factors are involved in the development of this type of diabetes.
Type 1 diabetes is usually found in children and young adults, but can appear at any age. It happens when the body destroys the cells that make insulin. Because people with type 1 diabetes are not able to make insulin, they need to take insulin every day.
Type 2 diabetes may account for about 90% to 95% of all diagnosed cases of diabetes. Risk factors for type 2 diabetes include older age, obesity, family history of diabetes, prior history of gestational diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance, physical inactivity, and race/ethnicity.
About 90% to 95% of all people with diabetes have type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes affects mostly adults. It most often happens in people who are older, obese, or have a family history of diabetes, as well as women who had gestational diabetes when they were pregnant. Four out of 5 people with type 2 diabetes are overweight.
Type 2 diabetes is being diagnosed more often in children and adolescents. This is especially true among African Americans, Mexican Americans, and Pacific Islanders. When you have type 2 diabetes, your body may make enough insulin. But for some reason, your body does not do its job of getting sugar into your cells. So the sugar stays in your blood. Many people with type 2 diabetes take medicine to lower their blood sugar. Risk factors for type 2 diabetes include older age, obesity, family history of diabetes, prior history of gestational diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance, physical inactivity, and race/ethnicity.
Type 2 diabetes changes over time
As type 2 diabetes changes, different types of medicine are usually necessary to manage blood sugar. This is because over time, the beta cells in the pancreas release less and less insulin.
Other Kinds of Diabetes:
Gestational diabetes is high blood sugar that develops during pregnancy. Blood sugar levels usually return to normal after the baby is born. However, women who have had gestational diabetes have a 35% to 60% chance of developing diabetes in the next 10 to 20 years. Managing your weight and getting regular physical activity can reduce the risk of getting type 2 diabetes.
Gestational diabetes develops in 2% to 5% of all pregnancies but usually disappears after a pregnancy is over. Obesity is associated with a higher risk, as is a family history of diabetes. Women who have gestational diabetes are at an increased risk for later developing type 2 diabetes.
Diabetes can be caused by other illnesses
Certain kinds of medicine can also affect blood sugar levels. Be sure to tell your doctor about all the medicines you take, as well as any vitamins, minerals, and herbs. Your doctor can tell you if anything you are taking could cause a rise in blood sugar.
Prediabetes is when your blood sugar levels are above normal but not high enough for a diagnosis of diabetes. A normal fasting blood sugar level is below 100 mg/dL. Prediabetes is:
When the fasting blood sugar level is between 100 and 125 mg/dL or
The results of a glucose tolerance test (GTT) are between 140 and 199 mg/dL
It’s estimated that about 57 million people in the United States have prediabetes. The good news is that with changes in their meal plan and physical activity, people with prediabetes may reduce their risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Experts recommend that people with prediabetes reduce their weight by 5% to 10% and get at least 30 minutes of physical activity 5 days a week. Talk to your doctor before beginning an exercise program.